Operations 
Word

Definition

Example

multiplication 
Finds the total number of objects based on the number of objects in each group times the number of groups

3×5 = 15

division 
Splits numbers into groups; the inverse operation of multiplication

15÷3 = 5

factor 
Numbers that make up another number when multiplied together

Factors of 15:
1, 3, 5, 15

decompose 
Breaking a number into smaller parts

234 = 200+30+4
234 = 2×3×3×13 
product 
The answer in a multiplication problem

3×5 = 15 
array 
A geometric picture of a multiplication problem


dimensions 
The measurement of the sides of a plane figure, also the factors of a multiplication problem

3 cm × 5 cm rectangle

unmarked array

An array that does not have the area marked off in square units


combination

Two factors which pair together to form a specific product

3, 5 [3×5=15]
1, 15 [1×15=15] 
multiple 
The product of a specific number times any other number(s)

Multiples of 2:
2, 4, 6, 8, 10...

even numbers

Numbers which are multiples of two

2, 4, 6, ...8...100...1,000...

odd numbers

Numbers which are not multiples of two

1, 3, 5...101...

prime numbers

Numbers which have only one and itself as factors

1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11...

composite numbers

Numbers which are made up by more than one combination of factors

4, 8, 16, 44

square number

The product of a number multiplied by itself, also written as 22

22=2×2=4
32=3×3=9 
prime factorization

The process of finding all of the prime numbers which are factors of a number

Prime factors for 100:
1, 2, 5

representation

A way of showing a mathematical relationship or concept

3 groups of 5:
3×5

distributive property

Multiplication can distribute across addition which allows us to break up multiplication problems into smaller parts

3×15=3×(10+5)=(3×10)+(3×5)=30+15=45
p=(2×l)+(2×w)=2×(l+w) 
associative property

Addition: Addends (the parts of an addition problem) may be added together in any order
Multiplication: Factors may be multiplied together in any order

3+(5+10)=(3+5)+10
2×(3×5)=(2×3)+5 
<, less than

The number, variable, or operation shown to the left of the symbol is smaller than the one shown to the right

3<5 
>, greater than

The number, variable, or operation shown to the left of the symbol is larger than the one shown to the right

9>7 
≤, less than or equal to

The number, variable, or operation shown to the left of the symbol is smaller than or is equal to the one to the right

3≤4
2+2≤4

≥, greater than or equal to

The number, variable, or operation shown to the left of the symbol is larger than or is equal to the one to the right

4≥3
2×2≥4

=, equal

The numbers, variables, or operations shown on either side of the symbol are equal to each other

3=3
2+3=5

≠, not equal

The numbers, variables, or operations shown on either side of the symbol are not equal to each other

3≠5
2+3≠6

ascending 
Ordered from smallest to largest

2, 5, 7, 9, 11

descending 
Ordered from largest to smallest 
11, 9, 7, 5, 2

dividend 
The number being split into groups

15÷3=5

divisor 
The number of groups into which the dividend is being split or the size of the groups into which the dividend is being split

15÷3=5 
quotient 
The answer to a division problem

15÷3=5 
[Back to Top]
Number Sense & Place Value

standard form

The normal way we write numbers

952,345 
written form

The words we use to write numbers

Nine hundred fiftytwo thousand, three hundred fortyfive

expanded notation

Writing out numbers based on their place value

900,000 + 50,000 + 2,000 +300 + 40 +5

hundred thousands place

The position in which a number is equal to itself times 100,000

952,345

ten thousands place

The position in which a number is equal to itself times 10,000

952,345 
thousands place

The position in which a number is equal to itself times 1,000

952,345 
hundreds place

The position in which a number is equal to itself times 100

952,345 
tens place

The position in which a number is equal to itself times 10

952,345 
ones place

The position in which a number is valued as itself

952,345 
million 
One thousand thousands

1,000,000 
billion 
One thousand millions

1,000,000,000 
trillion 
One thousand billions

1,000,000,000,000 
fraction 
A group or object divided into smaller portions (or parts)


numerator 
The number on the top of the fraction, represents the number of parts of a whole that we have (or are shaded in)


denominator 
The number on the bottom of the fraction, represents the number of parts into which the whole is split


decimal 
A fraction represented as a number based on tenths, hundredths, thousandths...

.5 = one half
.25 = one quarter
.1 = one tenth

percent 
A portion (fraction) out of one hundred

100% = whole
50% = one half

equivalent 
Fractions, decimals, percents, or numbers which are equal to each other


tenths

The position in which a number is equal to the fraction of itself over ten

.1 = 1 tenth

hundredths 
The position in which a number is equal to the fraction of itself over one hundred

.01 = 1 hundredth

thousandths 
The position in which a number is equal to the fraction of itself over one thousand

.001 = 1 thousandth

ten thousandths

The position in which a number is equal to the fraction of itself over ten thousand

.0001 = 1 ten thousandth

number line

A representation of numbers on a line in order from smallest to largest (or largest to smallest).

<1234>

[Back to Top]
2D Geometry/Plane Figures

angle 
The space between two intersecting lines or line segments


vertex (vertices)

The point where two lines or line segments intersect


right angle

An angle that measures 90°


acute angle

An angle that measures less than 90°


obtuse angle

An angle that measures more than 90°


straight angle

An angle that measures 180°


triangle 
A 2D plane polygon with three sides and three angles


right triangle

A triangle with a 90° angle at one of its vertices


obtuse triangle

A triangle with an obtuse angle at one of its vertices


acute triangle

A triangle with all acute angles


equilateral triangle

A triangle with all equal sides and angles


isosceles triangle 
A triangle with two equal sides and one different side


scalene triangle

A triangle with no equal sides


quadrilateral 
A polygon with four sides


parallel 
Two lines which never intersect


trapezoid 
A quadrilateral with only one set of parallel sides


parallelogram 
A quadrilateral with two sets of parallel sides


rectangle 
A parallelogram with all equal angles


rhombus 
A parallelogram with all equal sides


square 
A rectangle with all equal sides and a rhombus with all equal angles


regular polygon

A polygon with all equal sides and all equal angles


irregular polygon

A polygon which does not have all equal sides and all equal angles


pentagon 
A regular polygon with five sides


hexagon 
A regular polygon with six sides


heptagon 
A regular polygon with seven sides


octagon 
A regular polygon with eight sides


decagon 
A regular polygon with ten sides


supplementary angle

Two angles which measure 180° when their angle measures are added together


complementary angle

Two angles which measure 90° forming a right angle when their measures are added together


adjacent angle

Angles which are side by side and share a vertex


internal angle

The angle inside a single polygon"s sides


external angle

The supplementary angle to the internal angle


dimensions

The measures of the sides


perimeter 
The measure around the outside of a polygon
p=2×(l+w) / Perimeter = 2 × (length + width)


area 
The measure of the inside of a polygon
a=l×w (area= length × width)


perpendicular 
Intersecting lines which form 90° internal angles


line

Extends infinitely in both directions


line segment

A portion of a line between points


ray 
A line segment which begins at a point and extends infinitely in one direction


line symmetry

A shape shows line symmetry when it can be bisected by a line and both sides are identical


rotational symmetry

A
shape shows rotational symmetry when it can be rotated and be identical
to the original shape at some angle other than 0° or 360°.


diagonal 
A line segment with end points at vertices in the side of a 2D polygon

